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名词化的语篇功能


一、综述国内外对本课题的研究动态,说明选题的依据和意义:
名词化的研究从某种程度上来说,可以追溯到古希腊时期的柏拉图和亚里士多德,虽然他们没有提出名词化的概念,但他们将词类分为了两大部分:名词性成分和动词性成分,并对他们之间的转换进行过讨论。另外,西方各主流学派也对名词化进行过较为深入的探索。叶斯帕森(Jespersen)在他的分析句法框架中解释了英语的名词化以及由名词化引起的一系列问题。他将名词化称为主谓实体词(nexus-substantives),并把主谓实体词分为两种:动词性和谓词性,即我们通常所说的动词的名词化和形容词的名词化。对于名词化的形成,乔姆斯基(Chomsky)认为并不能用转换生成的思想对待,即不能将名词化看成由一套固定规则生成的。他认为,由于名词化现象极其不规则,名词性表达及其对应的动词在词形学和语义学上的关系都极富个性,所以他主张只从词汇意义上解释名词化现象。相比之下,系统功能语法对名词化的研究更为系统深入。韩礼德(Halliday)从语法隐喻的角度对名词化作了解释。他认为名词化是一种语法隐喻,是名词用来体现本来要用动词或形容词所体现的过程或特征,同时名词化也是常常用来实现其他语法隐喻的最有力的手段。
国外的许多学者对名词化作了大量的分析和研究,为此,本文依靠前人的研究方法和研究成果,试图在这方面做一些尝试性研究,即通过对名词化定义的界定,提出并阐述名词化在语篇中的两个功能:语篇衔接功能和语篇客观化功能。


二、研究的基本内容,拟解决的主要问题:
本文以前人提出的有关名词化和语篇功能的理论为基础,结合相关学者在研究隐喻和语篇的理论依据、研究步骤以及研究方法,通过语料分析和个案分析,从语篇衔接和客观化两个层面分析了新闻语篇中的名词化的特点及其意义。总结出在新闻语篇中,名词化的两大功能:语篇衔接功能和语篇客观化功能。


三、研究的步骤、方法、措施及进度安排:
1. 研究步骤:
(1)在指导老师的帮助下,通过网络资源以及图书馆的资料,收集所写论题相关文献,了解国内外对名词化及名词化的语篇功能的研究状态和研究成果,确定论文题目;
(2)整理、总结和综合已有资料,写出论文提纲并完成任务书;
(3)在英国卫报上收集新闻社论一篇,具体详细分析了名词化的使用以及名词化在语篇中的两个主要功能; 
(4) 综合已有的资料和语料分析结果,完成了开题报告;在指导老师的指导下,完善论文提纲,从名词化在英语中的使用、名词化的两个主要语篇功能、以及个案分析三个方面完成初稿,并交由指导老师审阅; 
(5)根据指导老师的修改意见,进一步完善论文的结构与内容;
(6)交第二稿、审稿、最后定稿答辩。
2. 方法及措施:
    通过图书馆、因特网以及指导老师所提供的资料,查找相关领域的最新理论、收集资料和研究语料;新闻语篇的语料分析;具体个案调查;指导老师的帮助和指导;同学之间的交流与沟通。
3. 进度安排:
 
四、主要参考文献:
[1] F.Unqerer, Geoff. An Introduction to Cognitive Grammar. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001.
[2] Halliday, M.A.K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000.
[3] Lakeoff, G. & M. Johnson. Philosophy in the Fresh. New York: Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group, 1999.
[4] Russmann. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2000.
[5] Sweetser, E. From Etymology to Pragmatics: Metaphorical and Cultural Aspects of Semantics Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

[6] Thompson, Geoff. Introducing Functional Grammar. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2002.
[7] 程晓堂:《名词化和语用预设》。北京:外语教育和研究出版社,2003年。
[8] 范文芳:“名词化隐喻的语篇衔接功能”,《外语研究》,1(1999):9-11。
[9] 胡壮麟:《语篇的衔接与连贯》。上海:上海外语教育出版社,1994年。
[10] 胡壮麟,张德禄:《系统功能语法概论》。长沙:湖南教育出版社,1989年。
[11] 黄国文:《语篇分析的理论与实践—广告语篇研究》。上海:上海外语教育出版社,2001年。
[12] 王晋军:“名词化在语篇类型中的体现”,《外语学刊》,2(2003):21-24。
[13] 辛斌:“英语语篇的分析性刍议”,《四川外语学院报》,4(1997):51-54。
[14] 岳好平:“论英语名词化隐喻的语篇功能”,《湖南农业大学学报(社会科学版)》,1(2005):87-94。
[15] 赵艳芳:《认知语言学概论》。上海:上海外语教育出版社,2001年。

Contents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………..1
1 Nominalization in English…………………………………………………….2
1.1 Definition of Nominalization……………………………………………..2
1.2 Grammatic Analysis of Nominalization………………………………….2
1.3 Semantic Analysis of Nominalization……………………………………5
2 Functions of Nominalization………………………………………………….7
1.1 Cohesive Function………………………………………………………..8
2.2 Objectifying Function…………………………………………………..12
3 Case Study: Investigating Nominalization in News Editorials………………14
3.1 Data Collection………………………………………………………….15
3.2 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………17
3.2 Discussion and Interpretation…………………………………………...19
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..20
Works Cited…………………………………………………………………….22
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………….23

 
Introduction
Nominalization is a very common phenomenon in language use. According to Halliday, the most powerful way of converting verbs or adjectives into nouns is nominalization (432). In nominalized processes, verbs or adjectives in a sentence are converted into nouns or nominal phrases, which makes the nouns or nominal phrases have the meaning of verbs or adjectives, but have the grammatical functions of nouns.
In recent years, nominalization has become an important discussing object of many western linguistic schools. As the founder of transformational- generative linguistics, Chomsky doesn’t think nominalization is created by a series of fixed rules. He holds that nominalization should be explained from the perspective of semantics (221). Compared with transformational-generative linguists, systemic-functional linguists have done a deeper study. According to Halliday, nominalization is a kind of grammar metaphor. In this sense, he connects nominalization with metaphor (445).
Just what has been mentioned above, many scholars have studied nominalization. Based on their researching methods and achievement, this thesis attempts to do more studies on it. Through the analysis of news editorials, this thesis will do a careful study on the textual functions of nominalization. The research in this thesis is mainly facilitated by corpus analysis. It is necessary to introduce the general corpus before the analysis. The main corpora are Guardian editorials covering a wide range of events which happen recently or in the early nineties of the last century. As Guardian news enjoys high prestige all over the world, we are deeply convinced that all the materials and data contained in this thesis are authentic and authoritative enough for us to arrive a plausible and objective interpretation.
Apart from the introduction, this thesis is divided into three parts. Part one offers the definition of nominalization in English and the grammatical analysis of nominalization. Besides, semantic analysis is also included in this part. Part two focuses on the textual functions of nominalization. It introduces two main functions: cohesion and objectivity. In part three, there is a case study. A text of news editorial from the Guardian is selected and the textual functions of nominalization are explored in the concrete text.

1 Nominalization in English
Nominalization is a common phenomenon in language use. It appears not only in Chinese, but also in English. However, nominalization in Chinese is greatly different from that in English. Although many scholars have studied nominalization in Chinese in detail, they have not reached an agreement yet. In this thesis, we shall confine our discussion to nominalization in English.
1.1 Definition of Nominalization 
It is clear that the word‘nominalization’consists of two parts. The root ‘nominal’refers to nouns. The compound suffix‘-ization’, as we can see, indicates a process of changing and converting. From the perspective of word-formation, we can interpret nominalization as a process of nouns being realized. It is actually‘a productive of word-formation through which words of all word classes can be used as nouns’(Russmann 789) .
Although many linguists may diversify their visual angles concerning nominalization, they all seem to accept this tentative definition. First, nominalization is used as the process or result of converting non-nominal words into nouns by adding appropriate derivational suffixes. For example, words such as‘fascination’, ‘stupidity’and etc. belong to this category. Second, nominalization is used as the process of nominal phrases substituting for verbal structures or clauses. For example, the clause‘It is first of all required that you accept what we propose here’can be replaced by the following alternative version‘The acceptance of the proposal is a first requirement’(Xinbing 53). From this widely reached agreement, we can see that nominalization is acknowledged in a broad sense.
1.2 Grammatical Analysis of Nominalization
It is a common sense that a verb has a Subject, but a noun does not; on the other hand, a noun can have attributes. When a process is expressed as a ‘thing’by nominalization, the participants related to the process may be expressed as attributes of the thing. When we talk about the grammatical analysis of nominalization, we refer to the analysis of the attributes co-occurring with the specifically nominalized word.
The deep structure for the reporting of an event can be shown in the following notation in which the first bracketed optional element denotes the agent that does or feels or says or carries something and the second bracketed optional element denotes the object being did or sensed or said or carried and the middle element will cover the possible process types.
[Actor/Senser/Sayer/Carrier…]Process[Goal/Phenomenon//Attribute…]
This deep structure, consisting of many functional labels which are meaning-oriented, can, however, be realized as superficial structures in two ways. One is the normal way of expressing which will be thought of as congruent. This may be formulated as the following notation:
Subject-Verb-Object
The other is the deviant form of addressing which tends to be more metaphorical than the following congruent counterpart. This may be formulated as the following notation:
Premodifier-Nominalization-Postmodifier
One thing to be noted is that the three elements in each notation mentioned above are not one-to-one relationship. Conversely, the functions which come before the process may not necessarily correspond to the grammatical subject or be realized as premodifier of the nominalization .The same is true of the relationships among the third element in the above notation. Even the relationship among Process and Verb and Nominalization is much complicated by the fact that people have much freedom of choosing language to imply their intentions. The following examples will make this point much clearer.

E.g. (1) (a) Select the printer settings recommended for enhanced printer performance.
             [the printer (=Actor) performs better]
          (b) The coming of writing is associated with the development of towns.
             [Writing (=Actor) comes at the same time as towns (=Actor) develop]
          (c) The use of the term implies something more than development or change.
             [When people use the term (=Goal)
(d) They ignored his suggestion that patience is one of the most important qualities for a teacher.
              [He (=Sayer) suggested that patience is one of the most important qualities for a teacher.]
(e) Of the opposition, at least Williams can console themselves with the knowledge that their new Renault-engined FW 14 is highly competitive, even if it still has to be endowed with a measure of mechanical reliability. 
              […measure whether the mechanics (=Carrier) is reliable]

In (a), the premodifer of the nominalized word‘performance’corresponds to the Actor or the Subject. In (b), however, the Actor or the Subject corresponds to the postmod

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