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工商管理毕业论文外文翻译

在它们控制您以前控制您的情绪

一个人身上的任何东西都可以被拿走,但最后有一样东西是拿不走的,就是人的自由----当面对特定环境时选择自己态度和自己所走的路的能力。
–维克多?弗兰克“‘人’对意义的探索”
我们以前都曾经处于“那种”情境中。您知道... 当您最喜欢的项目在您辛苦努力了几周以后突然被取消;当一名顾客大声冤枉您;当您最要好的朋友(和同事)被突然炒了鱿鱼;或者是您的老板在您已经超负荷的情况下仍然压给您更多的工作。
在您个人生活里,面临上述这些压力重重的情境时也许可以开始大声叫喊、或是躲到一个角落里独自难受一阵子。但如果是在职场,您那样表现的话就会严重地损害您的专业口碑,您的工作效率也会因此降低。
职场中,充满压力的情境是无处不在的,预算削减、裁员以及部门变更等都会带来压力。也许在这种情形下您需要管理好自己情绪的难度会越来越大,但对于您来说,这样做会显得更加重要。总之,如果管理被迫做出更多裁员决定的时候,他们也许会保留那些能够自我情绪管理的人,以便能够在有压力的情况下照样不影响工作。正如上面所引用的话那样,无论您身处什么环境下,您永远都有自由选择您所面对环境的反应。
那么,您如何才能变得更加擅长处理自己的情绪并在面临不好的环境时“选择”自己的反应呢?在本文中,我们一起来看一下在职场中最普遍的负面情绪----以及您如何能够有效地管理它们 。
为什么我们只把焦点放在负面情绪上呢? 是因为,多数人一般不需要任何管理正面情绪的方法 。归根结底,开心、激动、同情、或者乐观的情绪通常是不会对他人产生负面影响的。只要您建设性地、专业性地能够与他人分享正面的情绪,那么他们在职场中的力量是非常巨大的!
职场中普遍存在的负面情绪
1997年, 邦德大学的管理学教授辛西亚•费舍尔进行了一项研究,名称为“职场中的情绪: 人们感觉到什么,以及我们应该如何衡量?”
根据费舍尔的研究,职场中最普遍感受到的负面情绪如下:
沮丧/生气. 
担心/紧张. 
愤怒/恼怒. 
讨厌. 
失望/不开心. 
下面介绍了一些不同的方法可以用来帮助您处理每一种负面情绪。 
沮丧/生气 
沮丧这种情绪常常出现在当您感觉陷入某种困境时,或是无法继续前进时。它有可能是因为您的一位同事妨碍了您最喜欢的某个项目,或是您的一位上司太缺乏时间观念而不能准时参加您的会议,或者只是简单地因为您在电话这头等待的时间太长了。
无论是什么原因,快速处理沮丧的情绪是非常重要的,因为这种情绪很容易引发更多的负面情绪,例如愤怒。
这里介绍一些处理沮丧情绪的建议:
停下来并且进行评估----您可以做的最佳办法之一就是在心里先让自己停下来,并审视一下自己的情形。问问您自己为什么会感到沮丧。将它写下来,而且要写得具体。然后思考一件在您现行处境下可以做的正面的事情。例如,如果您的上司参加您主持的会议迟到了,那样您就有更多的时间准备了。或者是,您可以用这段时间放松一下。 
寻找在此情境下正面的事情----从正面的角度思考您所处情境常常使您以不同的方法来看待事情。您思维方面如此小小的改变就能够改善您的心情。当有人让您感觉受挫的时候,他们很有可能不是有意这么做来使您生气的。而如果是某件事情困惑您的时候---- 那么,这显然不是针对您个人的!别生气,继续往前进吧。 
记住您最后一次感觉沮丧的时候----最后一次您感觉沮丧的时候,局面不久就好转了,是吧?您的沮丧情绪或是生气很有可能与当时解决问题没有多少关系,这意味着这些情绪此刻对您也没有任何帮助。 
担心/紧张 
与越来越多的裁员人数随之而来的是害怕与焦虑,无庸置疑,许多人都会担心他们的工作。但是这种担心也很容易失控,如果您任其泛滥的话, 这种情绪不仅会对您的心理健康带来冲击,它还会影响您的工作效率, 以及您承担有风险性的工作的意愿。
尝试以下贴示来处理担心方面的情绪:
不要让您自己被担心和焦虑所包围----例如, 如果公司的同事聚集在休息室闲聊谈论裁员的事情, 那时您就别前去凑热闹了也不必和他们一起担心。担心往往会引发更多的担心,而那样做对任何人都没有好处。 
尝试深呼吸练习----这样做可以让您的呼吸和心率慢下来。慢慢地用5秒时间吸入空气,然后再用5秒时间慢慢地吐气。关注您的呼吸,其它什么事情都不管。这样至少做5次。如果要想了解更多此类信息,请看身体放松技巧。 
关注如何改善局面----如果您害怕被裁员而坐在那里担心,那样做很有可能是无法帮您保住您的饭碗的。相反,为什么不脑力激荡一些办法出来带进一些业务到公司,在公司里面表现一下您的价值呢? 
把您的担心写入担心日志----如果您发现担心这种情绪在您的大脑里横冲直撞,那么就把它们记录在笔记本或是“担心日志”上,然后再计划一个时间进行处理。在那个您所计划的时间之前,您可以先把这些担心的情绪搁置一边,因为您心理清楚您会来处理的。当您所计划的时间到了以后, 您对这些担心进行一个合适的风险分析, 而且做好所需的任何措施以降低风险。 
当您担心并紧张某件事情的时候, 它会削弱您的自信心。请阅读我们有关 建立自信心的文章以确保这样的情况不会发生。另外, 不要让您的担忧妨碍您建立恰如其分的自信. 
愤怒/恼怒
失控了的愤怒也许是人们职场中所经历的最具破坏力的情绪。而且它还是我们极大多数人最不擅长处理的负面情绪。如果您在管理自己的职场情绪上有难处的话,那么学习一些情绪管理办法对于保住您的岗位是最合适的事情。
尝试采用以下的建议来控制您的愤怒:
留意愤怒的早期信号----当愤怒的情绪已经出现的时候只有您自己知道这个危险的信号,所以,您要在这种情绪开始的时候就认识到。在起初的时候就把愤怒的情绪进行阻止是非常关键的 。请记住,面对一种情境的时候您可以选择如何作出反应。仅仅因为您的第一直觉就是愤怒并非意味着这个反应就是正确的 。 
如果您开始感觉生气愤怒的话,就把手头的事情停下来----闭上您的双眼,然后开始进行我们之前提到过的深呼吸练习 。这样做会打断您生气愤怒的思绪,然后它会帮助您带回到更加积极的方向上。 
描绘您自己愤怒时的样子----如果您想像一下当您生气时候的样子和行为,它会给您更多的角度看待这种情境。例如,如果您即将对您的同事吼叫的话,想像一下您看上去的样子会是怎样。您的脸是红的吗? 您正挥舞着您的手臂吗?您自己愿意和那样的人一起工作吗?很有可能答案是否定的吧。 
想要了解更多的办法来管理您职场中愤怒的情绪,请做一份我们为您准备的自测题您的愤怒管理做得如何?另外,请阅读 处理不公平的批评和 愤怒管理。
讨厌
我们很有可能大家都不得不与一些我们讨厌的人一起工作。但无论如何表现专业是非常重要的。
这里提供一些建议供您参考如何与您讨厌的人共事:
要会尊重对方----如果您必须得和您讨厌的人共事的话,那么先把您个人的面子和自尊心放在一边。礼貌地来尊重这个人,就如同您对待其他人一样。仅仅因为这个人的表现不专业,并不意味着您也会同样地表现。 
要充满自信----如果那个人的表现非常粗鲁和不专业,那么您可以态度坚定地向其说明您不接受对方对待您的方式,并且平静地离开那个场景。请记住,您可以成为榜样。 
想要学习更多如何与职场中讨厌的人相处的办法,请看我们的与难以相处的人打交道 和  职场中的自尊心。
失望/不开心
处理职场中的失望或者不开心是有点难度的。您在工作中也许会经历所有的情绪,而这些情绪是最有可能降低您工作效率的。如果您刚刚感觉到一份极大的失望,那么您的精神状态就很有可能会很低落,您可能会害怕再去接手另一项有风险的工作,而所有这一连串可能会让您裹足不前。
这里介绍一些积极的步骤可以帮助您很好地处理好失望与不开心的情绪:
审视一下您的心态----稍稍考虑一下,搞清楚事情不可能永远如您所愿。如果是那样的话,人生就变成了一条笔直的道路,事实上,我们所经历的人生都是跌宕起伏、高低不平的,对吧?而正是因为有了这些跌宕起伏才使得人生变得格外地精彩。
调整您的目标----如果您对自己没有实现目标而感到失望, 那并非意味着这个目标是无法实现的。您可以继续保留此目标,但您需要做一些小小的变化----比如,把实现的期限往后延一下。
我们的文章回到轨道上介绍了许多实用性的方法可以帮助职场中的人尽快从事业挫折中恢复过来。 
将您的想法记录下来----把那些让您不开心的事情记录下来。是同事吗?是您的工作?是否要做的事情太多了?一旦您把问题确定下来以后,您可以开始让自己脑力激荡一下看看有些什么办法可以帮助您解决问题。请记住,您永远都具备力量来改变您的处境。
微笑!----听起来似乎非常奇怪,强迫自己微笑----或者只是让自己的脸部肌肉扭动一下就能够让您感到开心(这是一个非常奇怪的方法,因为我们人类是“用线”连接起来的)。试试看----您也许会大吃一惊! 
关键点
我们在职场中有时都必须处理一些负面的情绪,而学习如何处理好这些情绪现在变得空前重要的。毕竟,负面情绪是可以传播的,而且,没有人会愿意与一个充满负面情绪的人相处或者是让负面情绪的人入伍。
了解是什么导致您负面情绪的产生,以及您最常面对的是哪种情绪。当那些情绪开始出现的时候,请即刻启动您所掌握的方法来切断它的循环。您所等待的时间越久,那么您从负面想法中抽身出来的难度就越大。
 

Managing Your Emotions at Work

Controlling Your Feelings... Before They Control You
verything can be taken from a man but the last of human freedoms – the ability to choose one's attitude in a given set of circumstances, to choose one's way.
Viktor Frankl, 'Man's Search for Meaning'
We've all been in one of 'those' situations before. You know... when your favorite project is cancelled after weeks of hard work; when a customer snaps at you unfairly; when your best friend (and co-worker) is laid off suddenly; or your boss assigns you more work when you're already overloaded.
In your personal life, your reaction to stressful situations like these might be to start shouting, or to go hide in a corner and feel sorry for yourself for a while. But at work, these types of behavior could seriously harm your professional reputation, as well as your productivity.
Stressful situations are all too common in a workplace that's facing budget cuts, staff layoffs, and department changes. It may become harder and harder to manage your emotions under these circumstances, but it's even more important for you to do so. After all, if management is forced into making more layoffs, they may choose to keep those who can handle their emotions, and work well under pressure. As the above quote shows, no matter what the situation is, you're always free to choose how you react to it. 
So, how can you become better at handling your emotions, and 'choosing' your reactions to bad situations? In this article, we look at the most common negative emotions experienced in the workplace – and how you can manage them productively.
Why are we focusing only on negative emotions? Well, most people don't need strategies for managing their positive emotions. After all, feelings of joy, excitement, compassion, or optimism usually don't affect others in a negative way. As long as you share positive emotions constructively and professionally, they're great to have in the workplace!
Common Negative Emotions at Work
In 1997, Bond University professor of management Cynthia Fisher conducted a study called 'Emotions at Work: What Do People Feel, and How Should We Measure It?'
According to Fisher's research, the most common negative emotions experienced in the workplace are as follows:
Frustration/irritation. 
Worry/nervousness. 
Anger/aggravation. 
Dislike. 
Disappointment/unhappiness. 
Below are different strategies you can use to help you deal with each of these negative emotions. 
Frustration/Irritation 
Frustration usually occurs when you feel stuck or trapped, or unable to move forward in some way. It could be caused by a colleague blocking your favorite project, a boss who is too disorganized to get to your meeting on time, or simply being on hold on the phone for a long time.
Whatever the reason, it's important to deal with feelings of frustration quickly, because they can easily lead to more negative emotions, such as anger.
Here are some suggestions for dealing with frustration:
Stop and evaluate – One of the best things you can do is mentally stop yourself, and look at the situation. Ask yourself why you feel frustrated. Write it down, and be specific. Then think of one positive thing about your current situation. For instance, if your boss is late for your meeting, then you have more time to prepare. Or, you could use this time to relax a little.
Find something positive about the situation – Thinking about a positive aspect of your situation often makes you look at things in a different way. This small change in your thinking can improve your mood. When it's people who are causing your frustration, they're probably not doing it deliberately to annoy you. And if it's a thing that's bothering you – well, it's certainly not personal! Don't get mad, just move on.
Remember the last time you felt frustrated – The last time you were frustrated about something, the situation probably worked out just fine after a while, right? Your feelings of frustration or irritation probably didn't do much to solve the problem then, which means they're not doing anything for you right now. 
Worry/Nervousness 
With all the fear and anxiety that comes with increasing numbers of layoffs, it's no wonder that many people worry about their jobs. But this worry can easily get out of control, if you allow it, and this can impact not only your mental health, but also your productivity, and your willingness to take risks at work.
Try these tips to deal with worrying:
Don't surround yourself with worry and anxiety – For example, if co-workers gather in the break room to gossip and talk about job cuts, then don't go there and worry with everyone else. Worrying tends to lead to more worrying, and that isn't good for anyone
Try deep-breathing exercises – This helps slow your breathing and your heart rate. Breathe in slowly for five seconds, then breathe out slowly for five seconds. Focus on your breathing, and nothing else. Do this at least five times. For more on this, read Physical Relaxation Techniques.
Focus on how to improve the situation – If you fear being laid off, and you sit there and worry, that probably won't help you keep your job. Instead, why not brainstorm ways to bring in more business, and show how valuable you are to the company? 
Write down your worries in a worry log – If you find that worries are churning around inside your mind, write them down in a notebook or 'worry log,' and then schedule a time to deal with them. Before that time, you can forget about these worries, knowing that you'll deal with them. When it comes to the time you've scheduled, conduct a proper risk analysis around these things, and take whatever actions are necessary to mitigate any risks. 
When you're worried and nervous about something, it can dent your self-confidence. Read our article on Building Self-Confidence to make sure this doesn't happen. Also, don't let your worries get in the way of being appropriately assertive. 
Anger/Aggravation
Out-of-control anger is perhaps the most destructive emotion that people experience in the workplace. It's also the emotion that most of us don't handle very well. If you have trouble managing your temper at work, then learning to control it is one of the best things you can do if you want to keep your job.
Try these suggestions to control your anger:
Watch for early signs of anger – Only you know the danger signs when anger is building, so learn to recognize them when they begin. Stopping your anger early is key. Remember, you can choose how you react in a situation. Just because your first instinct is to become angry doesn't mean it's the correct response.
If you start to get angry, stop what you're doing – Close your eyes, and practice the deep-breathing exercise we described earlier. This interrupts your angry thoughts, and it helps put you back on a more positive path
Picture yourself when you're angry – If you imagine how you look and behave while you're angry, it gives you some perspective on the situation. For instance, if you're about to shout at your co-worker, imagine how you would look. Is your face red? Are you waving your arms around? Would you want to work with someone like that? Probably not. 
Your Anger Management? Also, read Dealing with Unfair Criticism and Anger Management.
Dislike
We've probably all had to work with someone we don't like. But it's important to be professional, no matter what.
Here are some ideas for working with people you dislike:
Be respectful – If you have to work with someone you don't get along with, then it's time to set aside your pride and ego. Treat the person with courtesy and respect, as you would treat anyone else. Just because this person behaves in an unprofessional manner, that doesn't mean you should as well. 
Be assertive – If the other person is rude and unprofessional, then firmly explain that you refuse to be treated that way, and calmly leave the situation. Remember, set the example. 
To learn more about handling dislike in the workplace, please see Dealing with Difficult People and Egos at Work.
Disappointment/Unhappiness
Dealing with disappointment or unhappiness at work can be difficult. Of all the emotions you might feel at work, these are the most likely to impact your productivity. If you've just suffered a major disappointment, your energy will probably be low, you might be afraid to take another risk, and all of that may hold you back from achieving. 
Here are some proactive steps you can take to cope with disappointment and unhappiness:
Look at your mindset – Take a moment to realize that things won't always go your way. If they did, life would be a straight road instead of one with hills and valleys, ups and downs, right? And it's the hills and valleys that often make life so interesting. 
Adjust your goal – If you're disappointed that you didn't reach a goal, that doesn't mean the goal is no longer reachable. Keep the goal, but make a small change – for example, delay the deadline.
Our Back On Track article provides practical steps for recovering from a major career setback.
Record your thoughts – Write down exactly what is making you unhappy. Is it a co-worker? Is it your job? Do you have too much to do? Once you identify the problem, start brainstorming ways to solve it or work around it. Remember, you always have the power to change your situation.
Smile! – Strange as it may sound, forcing a smile – or even a grimace – onto your face can often make you feel happy (this is one of the strange ways in which we humans are 'wired.') Try it – you may be surprised! 
Key Points
We all have to deal with negative emotions at work sometimes, and learning how to cope with these feelings is now more important than ever. After all, negative emotions can spread, and no one wants to be around a person who adds negativity to a group
Know what causes your negative emotions, and which types of feelings you face most often. When those emotions begin to appear, immediately start your strategy to interrupt the cycle. The longer you wait, the harder it will be to pull yourself away from negative thinking.
 

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