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重点论文网    文科论文    英语论文    论语言和文化差异
创建时间:01-20

论语言和文化差异

      
Abstract: The cultural context is different, the person which speaks the different language when the conversation, frequently has the following situation: Because in cultural difference, even if the language accurate is unmistakable, also can have the misunderstanding. Regarding the different people, the identical word or the identical expression way may have the different significance. Therefore this article mainly analyzes from following six aspects: In language difference and cultural difference, in daily conversation cultural difference, other social etiquettes, analogy, literary reference, language taboo.

Key words: language, cultural, difference, context

Ⅰ.Language difference and cultural difference

1.1 cultural differences
Here we sketchily discuss the English-speaking country the person (or take English as native language person, as represents and between Chinese’s cultural difference take American). In this kind of cultural difference is various, we only revolve language human relations this on the one hand to carry on the inspection. As for other, like the life style, the attire appearance, the manner behavior, the diet habitual and so on the difference which has nothing to do with the language human relations, then does not give unnecessary detail. Even if in the language human relations scope, we also only can discuss some most common difference. 
For instance, "the intellectual" and intellectual in the China and America respective cultural context the meaning is entirely different. In China, "the intellectual" generally includes the university teacher, the university student as well as doctor, engineer, translates the personnel and so on all to receive the college education person, moreover the middle school teacher also is the intellectual. Has many places in the Chinese countryside, including the middle-school student was also considered is "the intellectual”. But in US and Europe, intellectual only includes professor and so on the person which has a higher academic status, but not including ordinary university student, therefore this word refers the person scope must be much smaller. In addition, but also has other differences. In the American intellectual certainly not always commendatory term, sometimes uses in the derogatory meaning, dissimilar to in our country Great Cultural Revolution to be called "the stinking nine category" to be same.
This example showed that, cuts may not for the bilingual dictionary in annotation all be the synonym which the word meaning completely corresponds, do not have to think always can find the corresponding word in the different language to express the identical thing.
1.2 Generally speaking the English word and the Chinese word semantic difference has following several kinds of situations: 
Some words has not corresponded the word in one language in another language. 2. in two languages, on certain words and expressions surfaces refers to the identical thing or the concept as if, actually refers is two matters. 3. Certain things or the concept only have 12 expressions ways in one language, but has the many kinds of expressions way in another language, namely in another language, this kind of thing or the concept has a slighter difference. 
1.2.1 In Chinese and English has not somewhat corresponded the word the example
  In Chinese has a proverb; "The summer practices the end of summer, the winter practices 39". Drove the people persisted exercises the body. What "is the end of summer" and "39" in English? Young turns to say three fu and three nine to several Canadian. Listens the person certainly is bewildered. He so long as said In summer keep exercising during the hottest days; In winter do the same thing during the coldest weather was allowed.
A Chinese youth swims to the neighbor swimming pool, a while comeback. Lives together the one room Chinese with him and foreign friends all feels strange. He explained: "In the swimming pool the person too are many, water too dirty, and early should trade. Simply looks like these same jam boiled dumpling." This analogy very unique, very vivid, lived together the one room Chinese friend with him to smile, but that foreigner has not already eaten "the sesame jam" not to see "the boiled dumpling", slightly did not think this analogy was humorous, no wonder he appeared an at a loss relentless facial expression. The western person described some person many, packed like sardines, often said it was packed like sardines (fills looks like sardine canned food to be same, is packed like sardines). This kind of analogy some Chinese may understand, but not necessarily can appreciate its interesting part of it, because sees the sardine canned food person which opens to be very few, looked has been to in a small flat canned food box, closely crowds the neat several row of fingers 头长sardine the person is not many
Also may point out very many examples to explain certain things or the concept have in one kind of culture, does not have in another kind of culture. For example, in Chinese has not expressed cowboy and hippie (or hippy) meaning corresponding word. These two words are the American society unique products. Cowboy and WE early development western area related, always has the strong romanticism and the legendary color about theirs fable. Translates in Chinese is "the shepherd boy" or "the cowboy", cannot reflect these significances. In Chinese translates into the hippie sound "希比 the gentleman" or"希比 the faction" had not reflected 60's these Chinese think the behavior strange US youth's characteristic. Translates into "the hippie" possible fairly good somewhat, but this word also can create the misunderstanding, because that group of youths certainly not allure "嬉皮笑脸" the person, including many people to treat the social question to be very serious, harbors some kind of dissatisfaction to the society, although their life style out of the ordinary: Often gathers 长发, wears the outlandish clothes, even the behavior is dispirited, catches takes drugs the abuse, and so on. This had explained in the dictionary or the translation China and Canada explanation.
Above the illustration sufficiently showed the difference is big. Creates these difference reasons is various: Perhaps because the environment and the tradition have differently, perhaps because the industry and the technological development level has the difference, perhaps because the political system and the social system are dissimilar, and so on. 
1.2.2 Some concepts all have in English and Chinese, but they are not the complete synonymy 
Somewhat understands an English the Chinese introduced when own spouse uses a lover word, the foreigner quite to be regarding this surprised (because of lover expression letter husband or lover’s meaning). The foreigner did not understand that, always in this kind of question discrete careful Chinese, why publicly stated one has lover? Should remember that, is equal in Chinese "the spouse" this word English word is: Husband (husband) or wife (wife); Faience (fiancé) or fiancée (fiancée). 
American president's Madame and governor's Madame often is called First Lady, sometimes translated work "First Lady", but some Chinese saw "First Lady" the inscription can have the misunderstanding, thought since has "First Lady" to have "second Madame" even to have” third Madame", "fourth Madame" and so on, thus obtains one wrong impression: "White House's master has unexpectedly done the quite several wives!"
  The Chinese asked when others "native place", possibly refers to place of birth either where a person is from (myself place of birth or comes from some), also often refers to where a person’s parents or ancestors came from originally (parents or ancestor comes from where).Some time two places are same, but frequently is also different. In English not with "native place" corresponding word. Place of birth only expressed myself am born the place, has nothing to do with ancestor’s any situation. This kind of difference sometimes can create chaotic, fills in the ID card, individual personal history form, the passport isochronisms especially so.
1.2.3 Identical thing, the biology or the concept, possibly only use award in certain languages to express, possibly have several or more words in another language expresses. 
Generally said that, expressed the identical concepts word are more, the word meaning differentiates thin. If in Chinese only has "the camel" a word, it is equal in English camel, may subdivide is dromedary (单峰骆驼) and Bactrian camel (Bactrian camel). But it’s said, in the Arabic has more than 400 words to express "the camel”, because the camel once was the majority Arab's important transportation vehicle. This more than 400 words may differentiate camel’s age, the sex, the variety, the size and so on, whether even also m

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