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重点论文网    文科论文    英语论文    杰克.伦敦小说当中巴克和白牙的对比分析
创建时间:05-19

杰克.伦敦小说当中巴克和白牙的对比分析

 

A Comparative Analysis between Buck and White Fang in Jack London’s Novels 

Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………...…….......1
Key words…………………………………….……………………….....……...1
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………….....2
2. Background Information……………………………………………….....3 
    2.1 The Call of the Wild………………………….……….…………………....3
2.2 White Fang………………………………....……………………………..3
3. The Survival of the Fittest Theory……………………………………. 3
3.1 The definition of survival of the fittest theory……………………..….....3
3.2 Survival of the fittest theory in The Call of the Wild…..……………...…....4
3.3 Survival of the fittest theory in White Fang……………….……………......6
3.4 The comparison between Buck and White Fang………….…………………..7
4. The Superman Theory………………..……………………………….......8
4.1 The definition of superman theory………………………………………....8
4.2 Superman theory in The Call of the Wild………………..………………...9
4.3 Superman theory in White Fang. …………………………………........9
4.4 The comparison between Buck and White Fang…………..………..……....10
5. The Transitions of Jack London’s World View and Life Philosophy…10
5.1 Love and hope …………………………………………......................10
5.2 Environmental determinism…………………..………………….......11
6. Conclusion………………………………………….…………………........11
Reference………………………………………….…………………………12

 
A Comparative Analysis between Buck and White Fang
 in Jack London’s Novels


Abstract: The Call of the Wild and White Fang are sister-novels of Jack London’s. They share a lot of similarities in their plots and backgrounds, while the two heroes in those two novels have totally opposite endings: Buck changes from “dog” to “wolf”; White Fang changes from “wolf” to “dog”. The two great theories—“survival of the fittest” and “superman” string the two stories together. Moreover, Jack London, the author, changes his attitudes as well as his worldview and life philosophy in the two novels. This paper focuses on the similarities and differences between the two dogs, the two great theories on them and the transitions of Jack London’s attitudes.
Key words: comparative analysis; White Fang; Buck; The Call of the Wild; Jack London

摘 要:《野性的呼唤》和《白牙》是杰克·伦敦小说的姐妹篇。这两篇小说虽然在故事情节和背景上存在许多相似之处,但是其主人公却走向完全相反的结局:巴克由狗变成了狼,而白牙由狼变成了狗。“适者生存”和“超人主义哲学”横贯两篇小说当中。而杰克·伦敦本人的世界观和生存哲学在两部小说前后也出现了转折。本文将讨论两只狗的相同和不同指出,在他们身上所体现的两大理论以及杰克·伦敦本人观点的转变。
关键词:对比分析;白牙;巴克;野性的呼唤;杰克·伦敦

1. Introduction

Jack London, one of the best novelists in his times, was born in San Francisco in 1876. He was deserted by his father and raised in Oakland by his mother Flora Wellman, a music teacher and spiritualist. London’s stepfather, John London, was a failed storekeeper. Jack London took his surname from his stepfather. 
When Jack London was a boy, poverty struck the London family. At the age of ten he constantly read, and borrowed books from the Oakland Public Library. He took a lot of careers. After leaving school at the age of 14, London worked as a seaman, he led a vagrant life in freight trains and adopted socialistic views as a member of protest armies of the unemployed. In 1894 he was arrested in Niagara Falls and jailed for vagrancy. Without having much formal education, London educated himself in public libraries, and at the age of 19 gained admittance to the University of California at Berkeley. By that time, he had already started to write.
 These years made him determined to raise himself out of poverty but they also gave later material for such works as The Sea-Wolf (1904), which was partly based on his horrific experiences as a sailor in the Pacific Ocean. The Road (1907), a collection of short stories, inspired later writers like John Steinbeck and Jack Kerouac. 
In 1901 Jack London started to steadily produce novels, nonfiction and short stories, becoming in his lifetime one of the most popular authors. London's first novel appeared in 1900, The Son of the Wolf. His Alaska stories, The Call of the Wild (1903), in which a giant pet dog Buck finds his survival instincts in Yukon, White Fang (1906) and Burning Daylight (1910) gained a large reading public. Among his other works are The Sea-Wolf (1904) and The Road. 
In 1902 London went to England, there he wrote and published a series of novels concerning the poor living conditions of workers. His report about the economic degradation of the poor, The People of the Abyss (1903), was a surprise success in the U.S. but criticized in England (bbs.en8848.com.cn, 2008)  . The War of The Classes, Martin Eden (1909) and a travel book The Cruise of the Snark speak his favor of socialism and criticism of the capitalism.
London resigned from the Socialist Party a few months before his death. Debts, alcoholism, illness, and fear of losing his creativity darkened the author’s last years. He was diagnosed of the gastro-intestinal uremia and died on November 22, 1916. However, many people suspected that London committed suicide with morphine.
Jack London is very fond of dog novels and many of his works have something to do with the most faithful animal. The Call of the Wild and White Fang are sister-novels of Jack London’s. They share a lot of similarities in their plots and backgrounds, while the two heroes in those two novels have totally opposite endings. One changes from “dog” to “wolf”; the other changes from “wolf” to “dog”. Basically, both Buck and White Fang believe that they could conquer everything in the world; while some time they have to compromise with the people and the environments around them. The two great theories, which are survival of the fittest and the superman theory, string the two stories together. We can clearly see that Jack London, the author, changes his worldview and life philosophy in the two novels. 

2. Background Information

2.1 The Call of the Wild 
In The Call of the Wild, Buck, who is the offspring of a large St. Bernard/Scotch shepherd dog, is stolen and sold to traders looking for gold in the Far North. Through a series of different “masters,” Buck learns to survive “the law of club and fang” by using his instincts and cunning. After the death of his final and friendliest master, John Thornton, who is killed by Indians, Buck succumbs to the call of the wild, severs all ties with civilization, and runs free with a wolf pack. (Cliffs Notes on Call of the Wild,2008)

2.2 White Fang
In White Fang, White Fang is a wild animal that is three parts wolf, one part dog. Enduring famine, severe abuse, and forced dogfights, he learns to the horrifying yet true fact that in a society as such you have no other choices but to “eat or be eaten, kill or be killed.” He finds sanctuary in Weedon Scott, who rescues White Fang. Under Scott’s protection, patience, and compassion, White Fang becomes domesticated and finds love and happiness. (Cliffs Notes on White Fang,2008)

3. The “Survival of the Fittest” Theory

3.1 The definition of “survival of the fittest” 
(1) Natural selection conceived of as a struggle for life in which only those organisms that best adapted to existing conditions are able to survive and reproduce (Mechalith Millennium, 2007).
(2) Survival of the fittest is a phrase whi

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