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重点论文网    文科论文    英语论文    禁锢的人生--简析《远大前程》中郝薇香小姐的形象
创建时间:12-06

禁锢的人生--简析《远大前程》中郝薇香小姐的形象

 

Contents

Abstract (in Chinese)..………………………………………………………………………….i
Abstract (in English)....……………………………...…………………….……….…………..ii
Introduction….…………………………………………….…………………………...………..1
I. Imprisonment by the Society…………..………………...……………………...………...3
  A. Characteristics of the Victorian Age..………………………………...…………..…….3
  B. The Influence of the Society on Miss Havisham’s Tragic Life.……….....…………4
II. Imprisonment by the Family……………………...…..………………….………………6
  A. Women’s Position in the Family in the Victorian Age...………….………………….6
  B. The Influence of Miss Havisham’s Family Background..…………..……..……..….7
III. Imprisonment by Her Soul…………………………………………….………………...9
  A. Miss Havisham’s Dual Character…...……………………………………......................9
  B. The Influence of Miss Havisham’s Tragic Love……………….…………………….11
Conclusion……………………………………………...………………….……………………14
Notes..............................16
Bibliography………………………………….………………………..………………….……17
 
摘 要

    查尔斯·狄更斯是19世纪英国最伟大的批判现实主义作家之一。其作品以深刻的笔触揭露了资本主义社会的种种弊端,反映了下层人民的悲惨生活。《远大前程》是狄更斯最成熟的作品之一,是他比较晚期的作品。狄更斯在经历了丰富的生活后,对生活和人生都有了深刻的理解认识。而郝薇香小姐是狄更斯作品中着墨较多、刻画细致生动、形象较为丰满的女性人物之一。
本论文从郝薇香小姐的悲情人生着手,反映维多利亚时代整个资本主义社会的矛盾与冲突,暴露了金钱至上、唯利是图的上层社会的黑暗现实,但是郝薇香小姐的形象中蕴含的意义远非如此。她身上典型的体现了只有爱情的生命的脆弱,唯有仇恨心灵的可悲,桎梏于网的命运的无助,被囚禁的灵魂的悲哀,从而使形象具有了深厚的人生内涵和哲理意蕴。通过对郝薇香小姐这一形象的分析,从社会、家庭及郝维仙小姐自身的角度,对其被禁锢的人生命运产生的原因进行剖析,旨在揭示在男权统治下19世纪维多利亚时代女性的地位与悲剧命运,从而说明了在一个以男权为中心的社会里,女性应有其独立的声音与地位,依附于男性的结果只能是永远处于从属地位,甚至走向自我毁灭。
关键词: 禁锢; 悲剧命运; 男权社会; 女性地位


Abstract

  Charles Dickens, one of the greatest 19th century critical realistic writers, is a renowned English writer all around the world. His works reveal profoundly a variety of drawbacks of the capitalist society, meanwhile, reflect the miserable lives of lower-class people. Great Expectations is his post-stage work, which shows Dickens’ sharp criticism to the upper-class society of England. The female character Miss Havisham in Great Expectations is one of the most impressive creations of Charles Dickens, and the description of this tragic character displays the corruption of money to human’s relationship. 
This paper is written from the sentimental life of Miss Havisham to reflect the social contradictions and conflicts of the capitalist society in the Victorian era, and exposes the dark reality of upper-class society where money is supreme and people are mercenary, but what Miss Havisham’s image contains is far from that. Miss Havisham lives a dark life because of her jilting by her fiancé. She is an example of single-minded vengeance pursued destructively. The tragic fate of Miss Havisham is analyzed from the aspects of the society, family and herself, which aims at revealing the tragic status and endings of females in the Victorian England under the male-centered society, and illustrates that the female should have their independent voice and status in the male-centered society. If they attach to the male, the result can only be in subordinate status, even result in self-destruction. 
Key Words: imprisonment; tragic fate; male-centered society; female position 
Introduction

Great Expectations is a great work written by Charles Dickens. Since the 19th century, scholars have never stopped researching into it. And Miss Havisham is one of the characters who are discussed more by scholars. Judging from the previous studies, scholars always regard Miss Havisham as negative figures and few people treat carefully her tragic fate and her sympathetic place, and little is done on the exploration of the good side in her human nature. But if people change another perspective, readers can find some sympathy behind her hateful and abominable face. This will help comprehensively and objectively treat this classic character in Dickens' novel. At the same time, it will also help people pay more attention to the good side in human nature.
Through a research on Great Expectations, we can understand further Dickens' view on life, and he expresses view on the real world through the literary world. Through the research, on the one hand, readers can understand Victorian women's living environment, endowed fate, and the conflict between the society and woman's heart. On the other hand, through research on the multi-angle objective of Miss Havisham, it can show the complete personality and traits, causing people to explore the weirdo and human nature of good side in literary works. Moreover, it can cause modern people to think about many aspects, such as love, marriage, women, and so on, so it has practical significance. 
This paper is written from the sentimental life of Miss Havisham to reflect the social contradictions and conflicts of the capitalist society in the Victorian era, and exposes the dark reality of upper-class society where money is supreme and people are mercenary, but what Miss Havisham’s image contains is far from that. She reflects typically that the life is fragile if there is only love, the fate is sad if there is only hatred soul, her helplessness when she shackles in nets by herself. Thus it makes her image have a deep connotation and philosophical implication. Through the analysis on Miss Havisham’s image, the tragic fate of Miss Havisham is analyzed from the aspects of the society, family and herself, aiming at revealing the tragic status and endings of females in the Victorian England under the male-centered society, which illustrates that the female should have their independent voice and status in the male-centered society, also if they attach to the male, the result is always subordinate status, even result in self-destruction.


Ⅰ. Imprisonment by the Society

A.  Characteristics of the Victorian Age 
Victorian Age is the era which is ruled by Alexander Della Victoria from 1837 to 1901. She ruled England for nearly a period. She is one of the longest monarchs. The Victorian era is considered as the vertex times of the industrial revolution of the British; it was a flourishing period in economy and culture for the British Empire which occupied one third of the world and declared it. Victorian Period is an age of democracy, an age of popular education, an age of religious tolerance, an age of growing brotherhood, and an age of profound social unrest, yet comparative peace and rapid progress in all the arts and sciences and in mechanical inventions. And Queen Victoria also became an ideal symbol of the 19th century in middle-class femininity and domesticity. Because the marriage between Queen Victoria and her husband Albert set a good example to the people of that time, she was considered as “the mother of the nation”.
Dickens’ writing style has its specific historical background. Great Expectations set in Victorian England, a time when great social changes were sweeping the nation. The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries had transformed the social landscape, enabling capitalists and manufacturers to amass huge fortunes. Although social class was no longer entirely dependent on the circumstances of one’s birth, the divisions between rich and poor remained nearly as wide as ever. London, a teeming mass of humanity, lit by gas lamps at night and darkened by black clouds from smokestacks during the day, formed a sharp contrast with the nation’s sparsely populated rural areas. More and more people moved from the country to the city in search of greater economic opportunity. However, feudal ideas die hard in England at this time; the manners of the upper-class were very strict and conservative: gentlemen and ladies were expected to have thorough classical educations and to behave appropriately in innumerable social situations. The male chauvinism restricts the female all the time, the male authority reflects in almost every facet of social life.
B.  The Influence of the Society on Miss Havisham’s Life
The mid-19th century is the history of the British Queen Victoria (1837--1901) reign. A prominent feature of this period is the rapid social and economic development. But during this time of the British, the traditional feudal ideology still influences deeply the society, and male chauvinism has restricted the women; the impact of male power is reflected in all aspects of social life. Although the material life of the Victorian era have been quite prosperous, the widening gap between rich and poor and the intensification of class contradictions make people be full of naked money. Marriage, love, courts, prisons, etc. are built on this basis. 
Miss Havisham is a victim of this society. Being in the upper class, Miss Havisham, who is pure and proud, falls madly in love with Compeyson, but how does she know the man just covets her money? So when Compeyson abandons her in their wedding day, and after he sweeps away a lot of money to escape, Miss Havisham can not bear the heavy blow. So from then on, she is always living a dark life and deep in love, pain and suffers the indignation. It can be said that for a long time dominant position occupied by men resulted in the concept of women in their own unconscious stereotyping by default. In order to achieve women's "virtue" and be in line with standards of patriarchal society, women have to sacrifice in all its forms --- loyal, submissive, surrender or death for the price. The social role of women given by the society makes women fail to exist independently separating from men, and the fragility of them has become the deadliest weapon. So they can not be strong enough to face life's suffering. Thus Miss Havisham’s tragedy is inevitable. Prison is the justice in this place, but at the time of the capitalist society, under the trading power for money, right and wrong has already been ignored and black and white have been reversed. Jaggers’ law firm embodies clearly a manifestation of this social injustice and darkness. The description of the prison, the court in novel demonstrates such an outrageous social image, in which there are some good honest men, but the background of the whole society is dark, ugly.

By the light of the torches, we saw the black Hulk lying out a little way from the mud of the shore, like a wicked Noah’s ark. Cribbed and barred and moored by massive rusty chains, the prison-ship seemed in my young eyes to be ironed like the prisoners. We saw the boat go alongside, and we saw him taken up the side and disappear. ①

Although the Victorian Age meets a material prosperity and the polarization of wealth is widening, the class contradiction is becoming more serious and this result in the corruption of money to human’s relationship. And marriage, love, courts, jails etc are based on this. Miss Havisham is just the victim of this society. And she suffers greatly from the pain of love and her quest for revenge. The Victorian Age is a male-centered society, the idea that women should be subjective to men roots in women’s mind. The concept of male dominates for a long time, which causes women to accept the stereotype subconsciously. And in order to realize women’s virtue and morality to fit for the standard of male-centered society, women should devote everything even their lives. In such a society, women can’t be independent from men; their fragile souls make them unable to face the life’s suffering staunchly. Thus the tragedy of Miss Havisham is inevitable.
 

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