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重点论文网    文科论文    英语论文    一个畸变的叛逆者-- 浅析《无名的裘德》中淑的反叛
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一个畸变的叛逆者-- 浅析《无名的裘德》中淑的反叛


Contents

Abstract (in Chinese) ………………………………………………………………………….i
Abstract (in English) ...………………………………………….……….…………..ii
Introduction ...……………………………………………………………...………...1
I. The Distorted Rebellion of Sue …………………………………………………3
A. Her Distorted Rebellion in Love and Marriage …………………..……………3
B. Her Distorted Rebellion Against Religious Belief………………...…………….5
C. Her Distorted Rebellion Against Conventional Values ……………..………….7
II. Causes of Sue’s Distorted Rebellion ……………………………………...…10
  A. Social Factors ……………………………………………………………...…10
  B. Religious Factors…………………………………………………………...…12
  C. Psychological Factors ………………………….…………………..…………13
III. Result of Sue’s Distorted Rebellion …………….…………………..…………16
  A. The Impact on Sue’s Family life ………………………………......................16
B. The Impact on Sue’s Marriage…………………………………….....................17
Conclusion…………………………………..………………….……………………18
Notes………………………………..………………….……………………………20
Bibliography………………………………………………..……………… 21 
 
摘 要


托马斯·哈代(1840-1928)是十九世纪后半叶英国文学史上一位卓越的批判现实主义小说家和诗人。他的文学盛名是以他的小说为标志的。《无名的裘德》是哈代的最后一部小说。在这部小说中,哈代通过对淑的塑造,不仅给我们提供了一个值得回味的人物形象,而且对当时的社会进行了抨击。
 本书的背景发生在英国从传统社会向现代社会转型的时期,经济和科技发展迅速,民主觉悟日益高涨,达尔文等人的进化观点动摇了人们对宗教的信仰。除了外部世界的影响外,淑本身就是一个思想活跃、行为前卫、鄙视传统,藐视律法的人,她读了许多具有反叛精神的书籍,这些都影响了她在爱情、婚姻,宗教信仰和传统价值观的反抗态度。淑作为一个新女性,淑渴望在男权社会争取独立的自我,并对压迫女性的维多利亚婚姻产生了自然的抵触,这与当时的主流意识形态是相悖的。然而在为争取独立和自由的过程中,淑也是一个矛盾的综合体,并使她最终走向了失败。本文通过分析淑的扭曲的性格,阐述了淑畸变且叛逆的性格的成因和给她带来的后果。
本文共分三章。第一章分析淑在爱情婚姻观念及宗教信仰和传统价值观上所表现出来的扭曲的反叛性格。第二章分析造成淑这一扭曲性格的各方面因素。第三章分析淑这样矛盾的性格给她的家庭和婚姻生活造成的影响。她对待爱情和婚姻的矛盾态度以及她个性中对灵与肉的矛盾理解,使她成为一个矛盾重重的人,并最终走向失败。
关键词:反叛;独立;矛盾;失败

Abstract

Thomas Hardy is the most outstanding critical realist at the turn of nineteenth century and the forerunner of modernism in early twentieth century. It is his novels that earn him the reputation as a great writer. And Jude the Obscure is his last novel. In this novel, Hardy attacks all the social conventions through the unconventional characters. Sue Bridehead is one of them. 
The background of the novel was the period that England turned from traditional society to modern society , the economy and science developed rapidly and people’s democratic awareness was increasingly higher. Darwinism also shook the old belief of the creation myth given by the Bible. Sue herself was an active person and she despise the old beliefs. Sue read many books full of the rebellious spirit and had a very clear knowledge of the deceptive and oppressing social norms. So she came to be a rebel. However, in the process of struggling for independence and freedom, she was also an embodiment of contradictory personality, which caused her eventual failure. 
This thesis consists of three chapters. Chapter one analyzes Sue’s rebellious character, including Sue’s rebellion on love and marriage, against religious belief and conventional values. Chapter two analyzes the causes of Sue’s distorted rebellion. Chapter three analyzes the result of Sue’s distorted rebellion.
Key words: rebellious; independent; contradictory; failure

 
Introduction

Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) is one of the greatest English novelists in the late nineteenth century and famous for his novels which reflect the social realities of England in the nineteenth century. Jude the Obscure is among them and can be regarded as the summit of his realism. Most of those novels concentrate on the destruction of marriage and love in order to show the cruelty of reality and these novels draw a vivid social picture of the turn of the nineteenth century when the urban civilization intruded the calm rural region but they are colored in fatalism, pessimistic philosophy and a strong religious complex. 
   Sue Bridehead, the last and most extraordinary of Hardy’s heroine, may be the most rebellious heroine in Hardy’s novels in pursuing the free personality and the equality of the female as well as the spiritual development. For Hardy lived in the late nineteenth century and saw the significant transformation as a result of rebellion against the conventional morals and represent the skeptical voile of the present age. As a heroine, Sue sees the social change and experiences the hardship of life; however, she never acts like a doormat that meekly submitted to oppression but as an advocate of the ancient Greek civilization with the spirit of rebellion. Her sense of rebellion comes not only from a liberal environment in childhood but from a growing realization of the impending threat to her freedom as she matures. The unbearable fetters of the religious doctrine, the legal articles, the marital morals as well as the social customs result in her extremely brave rebellion. At the same time, she is a labyrinth of contradictions, a woman with a twentieth-century mind controlled by a view of nineteenth century. She thinks herself a liberated thinker, a dependent person, a reader of Swinburne, Mill, Gibbon, and other heterodox writers, yet she turns out to be like Chrisminster, a prisoner of convention, deadlocked between the old world and the new. Sue Bridehead is intellectually unorthodox, but notorious inconsistent and hypersensitive, which accounts for her constant self-contradictory words and actions in character and in moral values. Sue possesses rebellious and independent character, but her contradictory character and the reality lead to her failure.
    Hardy’s fascination with Sue Bridehead has been shared by many readers, some of whom even feel she takes over Jude the Obscure from Jude. However, it is generally accepted that Sue is a most challenging character to understand. Kathleen Black regards Sue is complex to the point of being irresistible, mystifying, or some exasperating. Sue seems to Yelverton Tyrell, writing in 1896, an incurably morbid organism, and to Desmond Hawkins, more than half a century later, just about the nastiest little bitch in English literature. D. H. Lawrence describes her as being born with the vital female atrophied in her and which type, which has no sex. Some critics have described her character as childish, selfish, sadistic, masochistic, narcissistic and frigid. However, this thesis mainly affirms Sue’s rebellious, independent and contradictory character. It includes three chapters.
Chapter one mainly focus on Sue’s rebellious character, including Sue’s rebellion on love and marriage, against religious belief and conventional values. Chapter two analyzes the causes of Sue’s distorted rebellion. Chapter three analyzes the result of Sue’s distorted rebellion.


Ⅰ. The Distorted Rebellion of Sue

A. Her Distorted Rebellion in Love and Marriage
Many essays on Hardy’s writing put emphasis on the external aspects leading to Sue’s frustration. Since the novel belongs to the novel of environment and character, Sue’s specific personality also plays important role in her frustration. Her distorted rebellion attitude towards love and marriage, and her split between flesh and spirit are main causes of her failure.
In love, a moral woman will not show capricious words and actions towards her lover. And after Sue leaves her husband and establishes love relationship with Jude. They share a sincere love and they should live a very harmonious and normal life but Sue often behaves in a contradictory manner. So that Jude is furious and begins to feel something abnormal on her. When Sue is in the Melchester Normal School, Jude writes suggesting to her that he should postpone his arrival for a month or so. She has acquiesced so readily she does not much care about him. However, Sue impulsively writes Jude, complaining that she is lonely and miserable, and asking him to come at once. When he arrives, however, she says she is glad to have come to the school and when Jude wonders if she is attached to Mr. Phillotson, Sue calls him silly. Then, she tells Jude she has promised to marry Phillotson. Later, accused of having stayed out against the rules with a man (actually her cousin, Jude), she climbs out her window and wades a river and comes to Jude, but next morning she worries that he is the only man in the world for whom she has any respect or fear. She hopes he’ll forgive her, but he’ll scold her dreadfully. Equally inconsistent is her response to Jude’s declaration of love. But the next morning Jude reads in her letter if he wanted to love her, he could. One time when Jude bravely expresses his love to her, she refuses it against her own will. However, hardly does Jude leave, when she feels so regretful. Jude makes variously contradictory statements that he designates Sue as several kinds of spiritual being ghost, spirit, fairy, and sylph. She frustrates any attempt to define her with her unintelligible actions.
Sue is reluctant to marry Jude, though she loves him. However, Sue does have attempted twice to legalize their natural marriage according to Jude’s proposal: one is after they are all free from their previous marriage legally; the other is after Jude’s son’s arriving at their home. Sue retreats the first attempt because she feels the words parties and condition used to register are more business-like; moreover, Arabella’s description about marriage deepens her abomination of the institutionalized marriage, which actually is a material union(business-like and a way to catch a man). Sue retreats the second time after she observes the vulgar scene at the registry: the marriage seems not be the climax of love, but a place for a pregnant girl to escape a nominal shame though she must pay the high price by “degrading herself to the real shame of bondage to a tyrant who scorned her” and a place leading a woman on to “give herself to that gaol-bird, not for a few hours, as she would, but for a lifetime, as she must”. Though Sue has her own sense of marriage, twice she still leaves home to perform the wedding vows, and twice she returns. The contradictory character of Sue could be obviously realized.
Generally speaking, it is natural for a woman to get into impulsive passion towards the opposite sex. However, Sue is constantly changing her attitude to the man she loves. Sometimes she is fervent, sometimes she is cold, and even hesitates to have physical intimacy with her Jude. Sue puts Jude through a mock-marriage before her marriage to Phillotson especially when she runs away with Jude, she exclaims at Jude’s suggestion of a sexual relationship: “but I didn’t mean that!” Besides, Sue has been living with the Chrisminster undergraduate until he dies of sexual frustration. These are all clear examples of her complex and contradictory attitude towards love and marriage.
Sue believes that her natural marriage with Jude conformed to morality, because it is based on love instead of sensuous pleasure as Arabella’s. However, during her pregnancy, Sue begins to question her right to bring the child to the world and is ashamed of it, which forms sharp contrast to her previous bold ideas. After she returns to Chrisminster and encounters Phillotson, Sue feels an awe of convention coming over her like a sort of creeping paralysis that will make her lose the courage to practice her words and the strength to stick to it. These all show Sue’s contradiction in her character.
Sue’s attempt to carrying out her advanced ideas proves to be a failure, which implies the gap between modern people’s ideal world and the reality. The result of their postponing legal marriage is their being rebelled by their society. They are unpopular because of their peculiar life. To avoid Arabella and other acquaintance they resolve to move off again. According to Jude’s wish they move to Chrisminster again. There the pregnant Sue with their children is refused by many landlords. To find lodging Sue has to move about on the street accompanying by Father Time. Then the tragedy takes place: Father Time kills all his siblings and then himself. Once free-spirit and courageous woman, breaks down. Sue’s contradictory character and the reality at that time lead to her failure.
 

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