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重点论文网    文科论文    英语论文    由《雾都孤儿》看狄更斯思想的局限性
创建时间:12-06

由《雾都孤儿》看狄更斯思想的局限性

 

Contents

Abstract (in Chinese) ………………………………………………….……………………….i
Abstract (in English) ...……………………………..…………………….……….…………..ii
Introduction...……………………………………….…………….……….…………...………..1
I. Dickens Limitations in Oliver Twist ..…………........……………………….....………...2
  A. The Idealized Realism .……………………………....…...…………….……...…...……2
1. Oliver’s Character ...…………..………………..……..........…..……….…...………....2
2. Unreal Coincidence...…………..………………..………...…...……….............……...2
3. So Many Kind People .…………... .…………………………...............………….…..3
  B. The Contempt for the Jews………………..……….....………………….………………3
    1. Fagin’s Bad Character………………………….........……………….…...……………3
    2. Nancy’s Tragic Fate………………….…................………………..……….……4
  C. Compromise to the Bourgeoisie…………................………….………………………...5
    1. The Perfect Bourgeois Characters……………..….........……………………….…....5
  2. Dickens’ Humanitarianism…………………….....................………………..…….….6
II. Reasons of Dickens’ Limitations………………….…..………….………………8
A.    Dickens’ Early Life Experience…………..……....…………………….………………8
B.    Social Background…………………..………....…………………………………………9
C.    Dickens’ Class…………………..………….........……….……………...………………10
Conclusion………………………………………….…..………………….……………………12
Notes……………………………………………………………………………..……………....13
Bibliography………………………………………………..………………….………….……14
 
摘 要

狄更斯是维多利亚时期杰出的批判现实主义作家,然而由于受时代背景和生活经历的影响,狄更斯的早期作品中理想主义和浪漫主义多交织并存,情节也以大团圆为主,对社会批判的锋芒很锐利,但同时又存在软弱无力之处。《雾都孤儿》作为其早期代表作,在现实的描写和对犹太人与资产阶级的不同态度方面即表现了这种思想上的局限性。本文主要从理想化的现实主义;反犹太思想;对资产阶级的妥协等方面来分析狄更斯在雾都孤儿中的局限性,并从狄更斯的生活经历、社会背景以及狄更斯本身的阶级性等方面来剖析导致狄更斯局限性的原因。本文采用分析式论证的方法,意在使读者对狄更斯有更深层次的了解。
关键词:局限性;理想主义;反犹太思想;妥协性;原因

 
Abstract

Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realistic writers of the Victorian Age. However, owing to his life experience and social background, his early works are full of romanticism and idealism. The plot of his novels usually ends up with a happy reunion. In his novels he criticizes the dark corrupt society a lot, but at the same time there are weakness and limitations. Oliver Twist as his early masterpiece well reflects this limitation of his ideology in many aspects, such as the description of reality and his attitude towards the Jewish people and the Capitalists. This thesis mainly focuses on analyzing Dickens limitations and explaining the causes of his limitations. Thus it helps readers have a better understanding of Dickens.
Key Words: limitations; idealized realism; Semitic ideas; compromise; reasons
 
Introduction

Charles Dickens, the greatest representative of English critical realism, was born in 1812. At that time, England was engaged in the turbulent events on the continent of Europe. As a result, a great many corrupt organizations and a lot of injustice appeared. Charles Dickens was not satisfied with the society and attacked the social reality with his pen. Oliver Twist, one of the most famous works of Charles Dickens’, is a novel reflecting the tragic fact of the life in Britain in the 19th century. It is a truthful presentation of the miseries of the poor and of the social system and the institutions responsible for such miseries. The novel is famous for its vivid description of the workhouse and the life of the underworld in London. Dickens wrote this novel so as to reveal the ugly masks of those cruel criminals and expose the horror and violence hidden underneath the narrow and dirty streets in London. However, owing to Dickens’ life experience and social background, there are many unbelievable plots which may not happen in the real world. 
This paper analyzes on the limitations of Dickens in Oliver Twist and unscrambles the basic reasons which lead to Dickens’ limitations, so as to make readers have a better understanding of Dickens.
This paper mainly consists of two parts, the first part shows what are Dickens’ limitations in Oliver Twist, including the idealized realism, the contempt for the Jews and the compromise to the bourgeoisie. The second part describes the reasons leading to Dickens’ limitations focusing on Dickens’ life experience, social background and Dickens’ class.

 
I. Dickens’ Limitations in Oliver Twist

A. The Idealized Realism
1. Oliver’s Character 
Oliver Twist is an orphan of unknown parentage. He is born in a workhouse and brought up under cruel conditions. The tyrant at whose hands he especially suffers is Bumble, the parish beadle. After serving an unhappy apprenticeship to an undertaker, he runs away to London, where he falls into the hands of a gang of thieves. But he knows what should be done and what should not be done and refuses to be a thief. Though he is thrown into a world full of poverty and crime and suffers enormous pain, such as hunger, thirst, beating and abuse, he never loses his good nature, being kind and gentle to everyone. Even when he learns what he has suffered is arranged by Monks, he still agrees to share the will with Monks. Oliver’s perfect character well exposed the limitations of Dickens’ thought. If Oliver was born in a middle class family and was taken good care of by his parents, servants and teachers, there is no surprise that he has such perfect characters. But living in a harsh environment and having so many virtues seems a bit unusual. Therefore, Oliver’s image is not very real.
2. Unreal Coincidence 
In this novel, Dickens arranges a lot of coincidences in the plot of the story. The first coincidence is when Oliver runs away to London alone so as to escape the ill -treatment of the undertakers. On the outskirts of the city, Oliver, who is tired and hungry, happens to meet the pickpocket Jack Dawkins who offers him a place to stay in London. Thus Oliver is thrown together with the band of thieves run by the sinister Fagin. This is exactly what we call “out of the frying -pan into the fire”. It is a coincidence that not only arouses the emotions but also engages the sympathy of his readers for the parentless, penniless hero and creates concerns for his future. Later, when Oliver is taken to the street by the thieves, the first person whom Oliver steals happens to be Mr. Brownlow, a good friend of his father’s. At the Brownlow home Oliver is treated kindly. After a period of recuperation, he is sent on an errand by Mr. Brownlow to pay a local merchant five pounds and to return some books. On carrying out this charge Oliver happens to be captured by Nancy and Bill Sikes and returned to Fagin’s den of thieves. This small coincidence makes the story seem to be unreal and unbelievable. Later Oliver is forced by Fagin to accompany Sikes in an attempted robbery of a house, (needing a small boy to enter a window and open the door for the housebreakers), whose owner, Mrs. Maylie, by chance is his mother’s elder sister -his aunt. Such incidents which seem to be unbelievable are regarded as “uneven and contrary to the real life.” Seemingly, coincidences become the negative side of the novel. So these coincidences well reflect Dickens’ idealized realism. The coincidences involved in these facts are quite unbelievable and represent the novel’s rejection of realism in favor of fantasy.
 

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